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I personally didn't see personal atrocities in the sense that I saw somebody cut a head off or something like that. Former cheerleader suing school, elected officials over national anthem protests Tommia Dean and other cheerleaders were known as the "Kennesaw Five. Police Rebecca Anderson is now in jail facing up to nine counts of child endangerment. Suffice it to say that the picking of my brain molestation? And during those 18 days, General Flynn continued to hire key senior staff on the National Security Council, announced new sanctions on Iran's ballistic missile program, met with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe along with President Trump at Mar-a-Lago and participated in discussions about responding to a North Korean missile launch and spoke repeatedly to the press about his communications with Russian Ambassador Kisliak.

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What sort of storms develop? What amount of economic gain versus loss? What affect on ocean temps and ice at poles?

If used for war, what sort of blowback, literally? How our air waterways work and don't work. As if we were all part of their lab science experiment.

As if that would make it okay. Giving them ideas of parameters they can work within. Clearly, deep thinking and morals and ethics have nothing to do with it. No doubt they rationalize "for the greater good". Science done from the comfort of an office at a university on a drawing board. Save the world delusions along with let's make a deal, and monies to gain trumping all. An example would be Dr.

The Dark Side of Science. Which is not as exciting as it sounds. He has a "new" theory about our Earth and land masses that up ends all we've been taught and accept for fact. Which is interesting in that no one else has done that. Everyone working off really old thinking, like turn of 20th century.

And, it makes a great deal of sense. He calls it whole earth decompression dynamics. I've not finished the book yet, I'm not saying he is right, but he may well be. Just saying that sometimes what passes for science and truth isn't. A lot of idiots out there! Herndon shows in this book blatant assumptions, wondering why no one has questioned them in what?

More than years! Not entirely unlike CERN. Yes, could end the world in a black hole, but what the heck, let's see?!! Just for the sake of doing it because they can! At least they are, uh, breaking new ground and actually learning new stuff about reality as we can perceive it. By the way, the paper Dr. Herndon wrote up for Dane and then polished, submitted to India's Science Academy in response to their ask to him for help with their aluminum problem, was thrown out and with prejudice, owing to a typo of his!

Cripes, of all the wrong times for a typo!! But it happens and he says when one as obvious as this does, it is usually common courtesy to let it be corrected and resubmitted. Can we help him somehow?

He is suing for libel. Let me guess, antigeoengineering on his side would be no help at all??!! I find these to be rather elegant. If a rough ride. Rough enough that the anti-nature governments and military would attack with a vengeance.

I've so often been told that I am one-to the degree that it is a problem sometimes. Perhaps that is the common thread Horsegirl was looking for here? Because that answers your question about why people don't see the white elephant in the room. Look what happened to Google Reader. A wonderful tool that could've changed the web as we know it but people didn't really use it that much so Google figured they might as well drop it and did.

They even scanned old newspapers for a bit but also dropped that as well. I am ashamed to be an American.

No longer just brainwashed but brain dead unable to think for themselves. Dane keep up the assault! What a crazy world that we live in and one that has no long term survival for we humans. I am not belittling your effort but just making the obvious statement that we are a doomed species.

It saddens me that we are causing so much extinction of other underserved species. I am glad that I am 72 years old and don't have long to go as I see no future. I feel for my granddaughters but what can I do against the coming 9 billion plague species that is coming.

You touched on something about which I have also wondered. How well do I remember mine way back in elementary school. How did I score? Suffice it to say that the picking of my brain molestation? No way would this insufficient intellect be routed into being a useful idiot for the controlling paradigm.

My niche was "lesser" and elsewhere as a cog. The system seeks out those with math skills, and attendant mental talents, and skids life pathways into well paid service to Baal and Moloch.

The earth is destroyed to support the machine, its profits , and it suicidal war making capabilities. This is a world-wide satanic pursuit, everywhere the same. And the intelligent nuts are global….. We see even the very weather upon which all life depends is not off limit to their quest for the ultimate intelligence…god status. It is a religion, a blood cult, a suicide pact. You are proof that with age comes wisdom. I agree with what you said.

But also, way back in early 70s, I thought we must feel like a bad case of lice to this Earth and that one day She'd just get rid of us. The irritation of us! I am but 4 years younger than you. Here's hoping succinct is coming! BaneB, Hello to you, and clearly, and I do mean clearly, whatever IQ test you took that relegated you to a cog, erred!

All your posts are thoughtful and intelligent and always worth reading. You use names and words I don't even know. And, I was designated as a genius! Goes to show how wrong those tests can be, but you've helped me understand how I acquired this recognition.

I excelled at math and I am a girl, well, an old one now, but girls were thought deficient in math ability. Also, I liked being tested. I thought it was fun every time I was tested for anything. Whereas my sister just froze.

Some people just do not test well. In the early 70s I began at KU but was found deficient in biology and chemistry as my supposedly excellent-for public school-high school had not prepared me. So I was in a class that had a lot of kids years younger than I was, looking at the clock all the time while I was thrilled to be there. We were given petri dishes to take home for the weekend and make a certain number of observations, that number was stated but I didn't hear it, didn't get to ask it, had no one else to ask.

So, all weekend I observed and found 5, could not find more and so gave up. You'd think I'd won the lottery if there had been one. Next thing I know I was invited for tea!

Confused and stunned, I went and what a grand office it was. I was treated like royalty. Turned out that in all the many decades they'd used this exact same test, I was the first ever to find 5.

The stated number had been 4. This head of biology went on and on about his studies of E. Coli, saying how interesting and fulfilling it had been for him. He wanted me to change my major to biology.

Made a big play for it. This was the first I ever heard of E. Coli, no one ever talked about E. All I could think was dear God, I do not want to be in a lab studying some bug all my life! Let me outta here! I kept trying to tell him it was a mistake, I didn't hear the directions. I can't help but think of that now in view of geoengineering. I mean, supposedly many science advances were mistakes. Perhaps they are aiming for mistakes! Perhaps one mistake led to a find, so they thought another might?!

Like when they blew the two nukes high in the skies over the Pacific, close together to see if they could lift the ionosphere. And blew a hole in the ozone, but moreover, created two new belts in the Van Allen's. Does anyone out there know what happened to those two new belts? Can't find the upshot, so to speak. Keep wondering if they are still there or what.

Wonder if that has anything to do with anything here? Does anyone know the answer? Did this screw up our magnetism? I so hope someone knows.

About 5 days ago we were inundated here in central Arkansas which caught me by surprise because the day before there was a crystal blue sky with only a few late day spurts. Tiny ones that clearly didn't make sense, and they usually never carpet this area like someone trying to weave a rug.

So dry it must be killing crops—by design. So that none of us tolerate a bystander role in this crucial push -consider calling the current Chairman of the Committee on Commerce Science and Transportation ; Sen. Wouldn't they have these in archives?

Having the recent NASA leak on this affirms the reality we all face. Law and Policy by Donald Frenzen. Steve, how did you come across this? Thanks for exposing this-a great boost to morale.

These documents are a real thorn in the side and pushing up toward the heart of these treasonous geojerks!! Still spraying now at 7pm. Never seen that much here before. I think, they're trying to push that high pressure over canada farther east. Ed, you gotta check out what Idaho Power is up to. Blatant open cloud seeding going on to produce rain and snow. Silver iodide remote dispensers all over the state that can remotely dispersed from a lap top.

Apparently it's gone state wide. You can google cloud seeding in Idaho and find several resources, even local news papers that are talking about this. They all say that it's "safe".

This has got to be stopped. I worked in Pediatric Oncology when I lived there. So many kids with cancer. It is still worth a try. One thing I know about Idahoans, they really care about their kids. With every post, you are strengthening our resolve to do more, to spread awareness, and put an end to this madness!

Blessings to all of you out there taking action. Weather Modification — Law and Policy http: Good legal insights as to what we are up against.

Natural law codifies our right to natural weather. It is we the people vs. The court cases are interesting in the arguments presented and how the courts have determined their decisions. Regarding liability responsibilities for the deaths and destruction caused by weather modification, and experimentation, it is no small wonder the perpurtrators of our weather havoc want to maintain deniability at all cost.

Their conniving curiosity knows no limit. I think the passage in Genesis In the destruction of that epoch's "window on the world", the tower is destroyed because "there is nothing in their imagination that they won't do.

From this device comes the ability to destroy. Thank you Cjay for this incredible document. Gives us a keen glimpse into the type of thinking going on about all this shit even way back in !!!

That was over 40 years ago!! One of my greatest fears is that Dane's legal team's efforts will hit an impenetrable brick wall of legal constructs specifically designed to fend off and castrate any legal threats to the Cabal's planet-wide agenda.

Hello Marc and Cjay, yes, this document has already been sent to the legal team which just grew by 3 more attorneys. That was Tesla's intentions as well. He knew also that climate control could be used as a weapon. It seems the evil agenda starts in PA. Some scientist are actually calling for the geoengineering to cool the Arctic as our last hope!

This 45 year old document might be the show how safe the geoengineering programs are that they are literally 50 years old! And if they cant stop the methane melting from the Siberian Permafrost, and maybe nothing can maybe the tipping point is long since past! Gee Charles, I was thinking the opposite. They would be held accountable, while we, the "nut cases" would be right and Are right and all would know.

That they have developed newer techniques, no doubt, and maybe are trying to double down in hopes of saying: Including the freaking methane. Maybe they don't want to go down as destroying the Earth and omnicide and are freaking out. A cornered critter and all that. It would explain so much. And funding would be pulled and gone over with a fine tooth comb. Yes, 50 years of cancer and more and more cancer, plus all the other medical horrors. This documents harm just from cloud seeding-mental retardation, and something else too that I am forgetting.

Plus, they'd have to admit to being liars, in this case crossing from morals to ethics. Feet to the fire and all that. I mean, how safe HAS it been after all?! Unsafe enough for Wall Street to bet on disasters! And this document s goes back 68 years. I read in there, which covers my entire life time. We may well have crossed the tipping point, but that would be their fault.

If stopped, perhaps the tipping would too. Who can try to find out? So, the onus is still on them. To prove or not to prove, that is the question. They've built the IPCC, not to mention Al Gore, and their whole paradigm upon this all being down to 7 Billion people and growing, and our use of fossil fuels, all the while trying everything they can to get at more fossil fuels for This effort, preventing sunlight from everything from optimal solar to photosynthesis, while causing mega chart shattering drought, deluges, and raging wildfires, quakes, hail from hell.

What if it is not all down to regular human use? And this does mean that "all" knew, even if only rumored in dark halls, in whispers. All had access, one assumes, from this. So no excuse for falling on deaf ears. The only thing not done, it would appear, is stopping, and disclosure. If they could prove they stopped and what happened then, that would be another story, yet to be told. So far, their "genius" ideas have bombed-so to speak.

How do we know that? That could well be another idiot idea to justify this massive on- going abuse. If I stop hitting my kid, his behavior will get worse. Why should we believe Any of their scenarios?! In anycase, it is not working. This, we know for sure. What do we have to lose now? Sure, it seems like a rock and a hard place. But how do we know? But to stop, they'd have to admit doing. Which would be one very big rock and a hard place for THEM. Rachel is right about this one.

The worst of it has been done in the last decade with the use of the USAF and companies like Raytheon accelerating the process to a level of insanity. The harmful effects are intensified over time as the toxins build up and up. Obviously they do not care about life on earth or what we think of them because they would have stopped instead of accelerating the spraying.

It is a huge dilemma for the main players because so much of the economy is tied directly or indirectly to the perpetrators. With thousands of perpetrators, it will be almost impossible to lay blame to any one organization. We should redouble our efforts to take them down one at a time… like Monsanto. Do we really believe that all of this spraying is only about modification of the weather and not more sinister? I thought the whole world was nuts. I know we will see you in heaven.

Sue Sue Sue only in State Courts. The Feds own the Judges. Pick a State Judge who is not owned. Send this to all Meterologists Sue the University of Stanford. Sue everyone except Feds. Besause they own courts. Here is Senator Feinstein's response. After reading Dianne Feinstein's letter one really must pause and ask, could there have been anything less genuine than Hillary and Bernie's performance in the rigged CNN 'debate? In every election that people put so much of their time, money and faith into it is guaranteed that the power of the feds does not diminish.

Those who rule us at the point of a gun continue on untouched. The ones in all the alphabet soup agencies. The bureaucrats who plague us do not change with the latest election. Government continues no matter which puppet is picked for us. It keeps the masses believing in what does not exist. The 3 branches exist to keep the masses off the backs of those in power. Always it creates laws and restrictions to control and rule its citizen subjects while exempting themselves and its sponsors from its rules..

Belief in government is based on a fantasy. A creation of a man made God to replace all others. A type of religious cult. Seek justice in its courts through its assigned agents and somehow the outcome will be in favor of the individual. Only when people start to see it for what it is and reclaim their mind, their labor and their lives will things change. When people refuse to cooperate. They are programmed not to believe ill of their master and that programming runs very deep.

It also is pretty clear to me, that it validates, MOST Judges, States and Federal are complicit in keeping this out of courts, and quiet. The continued arrogance of all players in this is sickening, beyond measure!

This document was an excellent find and greatly appreciated. I hope everyone saves it to their files, refers to it, and sends it to their elected officials and official agencies when they get boilerplate replies. Have spent a big portion of this day doing just that, including those TV stations in Sacramento. More to send out tomorrow.

Obviously the weather newscasters have no credibity given as Dane has stated, and these excerpts demonstrate, there is no natural weather. One can guess how far advanced are the technologies from to the present year Haarp and ionospheric heaters did not exist as fully operational. Yes, what are we going to do? Trying to locally meet up and rally.

IL Sky Facebook page. Set one up in your town, I invite people when I talk to them on my hikes and when I sell my organic soap at art fairs. I wanted to follow up re my post on the previous blog post. We are experiencing a sort of manufactured flu please refer to my first post if concerned. It is not a true cold or flu as many of the traditional components are not manifest.

No runny eyes, normal entergy level, no bodily aches and pains and the laryngitis is not painful whatsoever. But our respiratory passages become volcanoes of mucous. The pattern has been for extreme mucous production at night and basic normalcy during the day. Yesterday precisely as the sun rose, my sinuses cleared and were comfortable all day. The evening before, after a day of clear breathing, immediately after sunset my sinuses became blocked. And last evening at sunset I felt the mucous field constrict, itch and cause a cough.

Micromanaged to death by fiends. I used to have the exact same problem, then I cut out all sources of inflammation. Mucous is a response to inflammation. I cut out almost all meat, dairy and sweets…I have not been congested in over a year. The nano particles already cause inflammation, giving them dairy and sugar is like putting fuel on a fire. Dane, WOW, you've hit the motherload!! This, combined with yesterday's polishes off any denial anyone could possibly come up with.

Even I am stunned to find this beginning the year I was born. Seems as if they could not give up WW2. Just HAD to attack more.

There is a certain mindset that I associate with white people, perhaps unfairly, but…which is that nature is our enemy, that to control nature is the goal. I think that to many, cloud seeding seemed more like coaxing than controlling. Seemed worth a shot. But herein it states that very early on, even with this coaxing, they found serious problems both with the effect on weather in general, and in damaging humans-mental retardation, and other health issues.

This proves that our whole government, especially the house and senate knew, debated and knew. Not to mention the idiots at Stanford.

No way can the universities involved claim otherwise given this. I do wonder if all our representatives are aware, if all this somehow by-passed them, got buried?

How is it possible that in all this time not one of these representatives or contenders for office did not use this to gain votes and attention? How could there not be a whistleblower in all that time? Hello Rachel, perhaps many have tried to expose the climate modification insanity but did not get far.

Former Bush aid John Wheeler was reportedly witnessed outside the Pentagon threatening to expose these programs, he was found in a landfill two days later.

We cannot know how many there may have been who tried to sound the alarm. I think that's the problem. Instead of threatening to expose the program people should just be like Edward Snowden and actually do it. Her car blew up as she was pulling out of her garage! Eisenhower did warn everyone. Our government is so very segmented.

Everybody freaked, even members of said government, as well as other governments. Seems that often, one hand does not know what the other is doing.

If true, seems some, at least, in house and senate may well not know, not have a clue and be very very pissed themselves at being used themselves, even set up to fall. Things may well get very interesting with this out of the bag. The SOURCE of these destructive, intentionally evil and massive programs, not just in geoengineering, but in all areas of importance in the world are for one prime purpose.

To advance what the "cabal" there are many other names for this controlling power calls the "new world order". To have total control and enslavement over the population of the world. It's valuable to wake up as many people who we can. HOWEVER, the cabal owns and completely controls the mainstream media sources TV, newspapers, radio, magazines, even movie production and book publishing.

Therefore, one will ONLY hear lies and propaganda in the "news" that advances their nefarious agenda. The cabal also controls the three branches of US government: They control "whistleblowers" to a large extent. How does the cabal control? It's NOT a matter of going through "regular channels" one would think could make a change to this ubiquitous controlling force.

Awareness helps a great deal to alert the people. More deeply, to come out straight with the answer, it is the plan and unfoldment of "Divine Intelligence" that is bringing a New Age of Heaven to replace a current age of lack of awareness and rampant evil destructiveness.

This is NOT religious, but the basic intelligence governing everything. Physics calls this the Unified Field. In other words, over hundreds of years, the cabal has gained foothold power and control to such an extent that it's practically impossible to stop them without "Divine Intervention". This may sound strange to a scientific mind. Science is rapidly marrying what used to be thought of as Spiritual thought.

Why did "Divine Intelligence" allow for such evil in the first place? In short, because the ONE Intelligence at the basis of all individual expression of life form, created "opposites" on earth: A human being, in facing challenges, affliction, pain, suffering opposites , is able to gain strength, sovereignty or mastery over that afflictive challenge.

Therefore, "Divine Intelligence" created opposites to assist the process of growth, evolution, and realization of greater and greater life lessons, including greater happiness and well being. We don't learn much or anything about this subject particularly in the United States, the Western World, or anywhere, for that matter. So individuals falsely "think" that their limited existence through the five senses is all that there is, having not been made aware of the unlimited potential that every human being contains.

We are taught to believe "good" vs. What I have written has been recorded in all disciplines throughout time, for those who have the luxury to read and be exposed to these writings and truths. Many spiritual practices, such as meditation, many religions in their purest origination and form, contain this Universal Truth about the nature of "Divine Intelligence" and practical methods or ways to become aware and experience it directly for oneself.

It is hoped that this short writing will be fruitful to awaken some beyond what they knew before. In humility, I express what I know to be true. I also realize that a far greater "plan" and purpose is bringing transformation to the existing geoengineering and world problems caused by the "cabal", in order to REMOVE them, arrest them, try them, and usher in an age of tremendous positive display for all the people of the World. It's a matter of change from one "dark" age to a "Lighted" age of greater Truth and Harmony.

This is such a beautiful expression of faith that I hate to critic it but I just have to as much of this has formed my thinking since the late 60s. The cabal of which you speak, using that word for lack of another, is in fact thousands, not hundreds of years old and goes back to Socratic dialectic, which is credited for laying the groundwork of much of science, the Industrial Revolution, our own judicial system, and computers.

The One did not place these opposites to help us develop. Rather, this is the beginning of binary, and the end of real growth and truth. This is binary thinking and it was not part of indigenous peoples thinking, all indigenous peoples.

Because they lived in a multi dimensional world in which there was no reference to left or right, good or bad, up or down. Life was more complex than that with no excess time nor inclination for days spent arguing their way toward concepts of " truth".

However, in India, even longer ago, the great sages laid the groundwork for the harmony and oneness of which you speak. This Socratic dialectic was honed in argumentation as a way to win arguments in what appeared to be a flat and barren world, yet sufficient enough for the beginnings of this sort of education in which young men proposed theories all day long, which were debated and won with this "tool", in an early sort of educational system.

Worked well enough to springboard mankind to now. In the late 60s I began to question when and where East split from West. By which I meant when cosmology and mysticism waned, as "modern" thinking waxed. Modern thinking eschewed mysticism as backwards but for novelty entertainment such as magic.

And great exceptions, exceptional people who bridged both, such as Shakespeare who was so adept at this that his stories ring true even today, touching that part of us that knows there is more to life than binary thinking.

I was a bit surprised to read in these papers about '71, because that was when I began to have "startle" responses to airplanes, even blurting out that they seemed like dinosaurs to me and threatening. Which, of course everyone thought weird, even insane. Under current Senate rules, any modification or limitation of the filibuster would be a rule change that itself could be filibustered, with two-thirds of those senators present and voting as opposed to the normal three-fifths of those sworn needing to vote to break the filibuster.

The removal or substantial limitation of the filibuster by a simple majority, rather than a rule change, is called the constitutional option by proponents, and the nuclear option by opponents. In the United States House of Representatives , the filibuster the right to unlimited debate was used until , when a permanent rule limiting the duration of debate was created.

The disappearing quorum was a tactic used by the minority until Speaker Thomas Brackett Reed eliminated it in As the membership of the House grew much larger than the Senate , the House had acted earlier to control floor debate and the delay and blocking of floor votes.

On February 7, , Nancy Pelosi set a record for the longest speech on the House floor 8 hours and 7 minutes , in support of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. The French constitution gives the government two options to defeat such a filibuster. The first one was originally the use of the article 49 paragraph 3 procedure, according to which the law was adopted except if a majority is reached on a non-confidence motion a reform of July resulted in this power being restricted to budgetary measures only, plus one time each ordinary session — i.

The second one is the article 44 paragraph 3 through which the government can force a global vote on all amendments it did not approve or submit itself. In the end, the government did not have to use either of those procedures. As the parliamentary debate started, the left-wing opposition chose to withdraw all the amendments to allow for the vote to proceed.

The "filibuster" was aborted because the opposition to the privatisation of Gaz de France appeared to lack support amongst the general population. It also appeared that this privatisation law could be used by the left-wing in the presidential election of as a political argument. The first incidence of filibuster in the Legislative Council LegCo after the Handover occurred during the second reading of the Provision of Municipal Services Reorganization Bill in , which aimed at dissolving the partially elected Urban Council and Regional Council.

As the absence of some pro-Establishment legislators would mean an inadequate support for the passing of the bill, the Pro-establishment Camp filibustered along with Michael Suen , the then- Secretary for Constitutional Affairs , the voting of the bill was delayed to the next day and that the absentees could cast their votes.

Though the filibuster was criticised by the pro-democracy camp , Lau Kong-wah of the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong DAB defended their actions, saying "it a filibuster is totally acceptable in a parliamentary assembly. Legislators of the Pro-democracy Camp filibustered during a debate about financing the construction of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link by raising many questions on very minor issues, delaying the passing of the bill from 18 December to 16 January In , Albert Chan and Wong Yuk-man of People Power submitted a total of amendments to the Legislative Council Amendment Bill, by which the government attempted to forbid lawmakers from participating in by-elections after their resignation.

The bill was a response to the so-called ' Five Constituencies Referendum , in which 5 lawmakers from the pro-democracy camp resigned and then joined the by-election, claiming that it would affirm the public's support to push forward the electoral reform. The pro-democracy camp strongly opposed the bill [ citation needed ] , saying it was seen a deprivation of the citizens' political rights. As a result of the filibuster, the LegCo carried on multiple overnight debates on the amendments.

In any matter not provided for in these Rules of Procedure, the practice and procedure to be followed in the Council shall be such as may be decided by the President who may, if he thinks fit, be guided by the practice and procedure of other legislatures.

In the end, all motions to amend the bill were defeated and the Bill was passed. To ban filibuster, Ip Kwok-him of the DAB sought to limit each member to move only one motion, by amending the procedures of the Finance Committee and its two subcommittees in All 27 members from pan-democracy camp submitted 1. As of [update] , filibustering is still an ongoing practice in Hong Kong by the pan-democratic party, but at the same time, the pan-democratic party are undergoing huge amounts of fire from the pro-Beijing camp for making filibustering a norm in the Legislative Council.

In Italy, filibustering has ancient traditions and is expressed overall with the proposition of legal texts [69] on which interventions take place. In Iranian oil nationalisation , the filibustering speech of Hossain Makki , the National Front deputy took four days [71] that made the pro-British and pro-royalists in Majlis Iran inactive.

To forestall a vote, the opposition, headed by Hossein Makki, conducted a filibuster. For four days Makki talked about the country's tortuous experience with AIOC and the shortcomings of the bill. Four days later when the term ended the debate had reached no conclusion.

The fate of the bill remained to be decided by the next Majlis. South Korean opposition lawmakers started a filibuster on February 23, to stall the Anti-Terrorism bill, which they claim will give too much power to the National Intelligence Service and result in invasions of citizens' privacy.

As of March 2, the filibuster completed with a total of hours, and the passing of the bill. Catalonia at Spain , anti-independence members used filibuster on September 6, , to stall independence referendum , but failed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the parliamentary procedure. For the military term, see Filibuster military. Filibuster in the United States Senate. Retrieved 25 September How do you talk for 24 hours straight? Retrieved 12 June Life of a Colossus.

The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 12, Archived from the original on 14 August Retrieved 15 June Retrieved June 23, Archived February 16, , at the Wayback Machine. The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on January 29, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved June 26, A member of the Democratic Party , Byrd previously served as a U. Representative from until He is the longest-serving U.

In addition, he was, at the time of his death, the longest-serving member in the history of the United States Congress , [1] [2] [3] [4] a record later surpassed by Representative John Dingell of Michigan.

Senate to have served during the presidency of Dwight Eisenhower , and the last remaining member of Congress to have served during the presidency of Harry Truman. Byrd is also the only West Virginian to have served in both chambers of the state legislature and both chambers of Congress. Initially elected to the United States House of Representatives in , Byrd served there for six years before being elected to the Senate in He rose to become one of the Senate's most powerful members, serving as secretary of the Senate Democratic Caucus from to and—after defeating his longtime colleague, Ted Kennedy —as Senate Majority Whip from to Over the next three decades, Byrd led the Democratic caucus in numerous roles depending on whether his party held control of the Senate, including Senate Majority Leader , Senate Minority Leader , President pro tempore of the United States Senate and President pro tempore emeritus.

Serving three different tenures as Chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Appropriations enabled Byrd to steer a great deal of federal money toward projects in West Virginia.

He filibustered against the Civil Rights Act and supported the Vietnam War , but later renounced racism and segregation, and spoke in opposition to the Iraq War. Renowned for his knowledge of Senate precedent and parliamentary procedure , Byrd wrote a four-volume history of the Senate in later life.

Near the end of his life, Byrd was in declining health and was hospitalized several times. In accordance with his mother's wishes, his father [10] dispersed their children among relatives. In the early s, Byrd recruited of his friends and associates to create a new chapter of the Ku Klux Klan in Sophia, West Virginia. According to Byrd, a Klan official told him, "You have a talent for leadership, Bob The country needs young men like you in the leadership of the nation.

Someone important had recognized my abilities! I was only 23 or 24 years old, and the thought of a political career had never really hit me. But strike me that night, it did. I shall never fight in the armed forces with a negro by my side Rather I should die a thousand times, and see Old Glory trampled in the dirt never to rise again, than to see this beloved land of ours become degraded by race mongrels, a throwback to the blackest specimen from the wilds.

In , Byrd wrote a letter to a Grand Wizard stating, "The Klan is needed today as never before, and I am anxious to see its rebirth here in West Virginia and in every state in the nation.

During the nine years that have followed, I have never been interested in the Klan. Byrd later called joining the KKK "the greatest mistake I ever made. Don't get that albatross around your neck. Once you've made that mistake, you inhibit your operations in the political arena. Intolerance had no place in America. I apologized a thousand times I can't erase what happened.

In , Byrd was among the official witnesses of the execution of Harry Burdette and Fred Painter, which was the first use of the electric chair in West Virginia. He earned his J. Kennedy spoke at the commencement ceremony on June 10, and presented the graduates their diplomas, including Byrd. Byrd completed law school in an era when undergraduate degrees were not a requirement. He later decided to complete his Bachelor of Arts degree in political science , and in he graduated summa cum laude from Marshall University.

Hedrick , who retired from the House to make an unsuccessful run for the Democratic nomination for Governor. Byrd was re-elected twice from this district, anchored in Charleston and also including his home in Sophia, serving from January 3, to January 3, Chapman Revercomb for the United States Senate in Revercomb's record supporting civil rights had become an issue, playing in Byrd's favor.

He was West Virginia's junior senator for his first four terms; his colleague from to was Jennings Randolph , who had been elected on the same day as Byrd's first election in a special election to fill the seat of the late Senator Matthew Neely. While Byrd faced some vigorous Republican opposition in his career, his last serious electoral opposition occurred in when he was challenged by freshman Congressman Cleve Benedict.

Despite his tremendous popularity in the state, Byrd ran unopposed only once, in On three other occasions — in , and — he won all 55 of West Virginia's counties. In his re-election bid in , he won all but seven precincts. Capito's district covered much of the territory Byrd had represented in the U. Johnson — endorsed and campaigned for Hubert Humphrey over front-runner John F. Kennedy in the state's crucial primary.

Byrd was elected to a record ninth consecutive full Senate term on November 7, He became the longest-serving senator in American history on June 12, , surpassing Strom Thurmond of South Carolina with 17, days of service.

He is the only senator ever to serve more than 50 years. Including his tenure as a state legislator from to , Byrd's service on the political front exceeded 60 continuous years. Byrd, who never lost an election, cast his 18,th vote on June 21, , the most of any senator in history. Having taken part in the admission of Alaska and Hawaii to the union, Byrd was the last surviving senator to have voted on a bill granting statehood to a U. At the time of Byrd's death, fourteen sitting or former members of the Senate had not been born when Byrd's tenure in the Senate began, President Barack Obama among them.

Byrd was a member of the wing of the Democratic Party that opposed federally-mandated desegregation and civil rights. William Fulbright and George Smathers , who based their segregationist positions on their view of states' rights in contrast to senators like James Eastland , who held a reputation as a committed racist. Byrd joined with Democratic senators to filibuster the Civil Rights Act of , [33] personally filibustering the bill for 14 hours, a move he later said he regretted.

In , Byrd told The Washington Post that his membership in the Baptist church led to a change in his views. In the opinion of one reviewer, Byrd, like other Southern and border-state Democrats, came to realize that he would have to temper "his blatantly segregationist views" and move to the Democratic Party mainstream if he wanted to play a role nationally. During a White House meeting between President Johnson and congressional Democratic leaders on February 6, Byrd stated his concern for the ongoing Vietnam conflict, citing the U.

It takes a good carpenter to build one. During the Democratic Party presidential primaries , Byrd supported the incumbent President Johnson. Of the challenging Robert F. Kennedy , Byrd said, "Bobby-come-lately has made a mistake. I won't even listen to him. There are many who liked his brother—as Bobby will find out—but who don't like him.

Byrd served in the Senate Democratic leadership. While Ted was away at Christmas, down in the islands, floating around having a good time with some of his friends, male and female, here was Bob up here calling on the phone. That was Lyndon Johnson's style. Bob Byrd learned that from watching Lyndon Johnson. I have never in my life had a golf club in my hand.

I have never in life hit a tennis ball. I have—believe it or not—never thrown a line over to catch a fish. I don't do any of those things. I have only had to work all my life. And every time you told me about swimming, I don't know how to swim. In , Byrd was the "favorite son" Presidential candidate in West Virginia's primary.

His easy victory gave him control of the delegation to the Democratic National Convention. Byrd had the inside track as majority whip but focused most of his time running for majority leader, more so than for re-election to the Senate, as he was virtually unopposed for his fourth term.

By the time the vote for majority leader came, his lead was so secure that his lone rival, Minnesota's Hubert Humphrey , withdrew before the balloting took place. From to Byrd was the leader of the Senate Democrats, serving as majority leader from to and to , and as minority leader from to Byrd was well known for steering federal dollars to West Virginia, one of the country's poorest states.

He passed that mark in , and funds for highways, dams, educational institutions, and federal agency offices flowed unabated over the course of his membership.

More than 30 existing or pending federal projects bear his name. He commented on his reputation for attaining funds for projects in West Virginia in August , when he called himself "Big Daddy" at the dedication for the Robert C.

Byrd Biotechnology Science Center. Byrd also was known for using his knowledge of parliamentary procedure. Byrd frustrated Republicans with his encyclopedic knowledge of the inner workings of the Senate, particularly prior to the Reagan Revolution. From to he was described as "performing a procedural tap dance around the minority, outmaneuvering Republicans with his mastery of the Senate's arcane rules.

One member Robert Packwood , R- Oregon was escorted back to the chamber by the Sergeant-at-Arms in order to obtain a quorum. As the longest-serving Democratic senator, Byrd served as President pro tempore four times when his party was in the majority: In , Byrd launched a Scholastic Recognition Award; he also began to present a savings bond to valedictorians from high schools—public and private—in West Virginia. In Congress approved the nation's only merit-based scholarship program funded through the U.

Department of Education , a program which Congress later named in Byrd's honor. In , the program began providing four-year scholarships. In Byrd secured unanimous approval for a major national initiative to strengthen the teaching of "traditional American history" in K public schools. The money goes to teacher training programs that are geared to improving the knowledge of history teachers. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program. Unsatisfied that Americans only saw Congress as the House of Representatives, Byrd and others pushed to televise Senate proceedings to prevent the Senate from becoming the "invisible branch" of government, succeeding in June To help introduce the public to the inner workings of the legislative process, Byrd launched a series of one hundred speeches based on his examination of the Roman Republic and the intent of the Framers.

Byrd published a four-volume series on Senate history: Addresses on the History of the Senate. Addresses on the History of Roman Constitutionalism. In , The Byrd Center for Legislative Studies began assessing the archiving of Senator Byrd's electronic correspondence and floor speeches in order to preserve these documents and make them available to the wider community.

On July 19, , Byrd gave a minute speech in the Senate against dog fighting , in response to the indictment of football player Michael Vick. For , Byrd was deemed the fourteenth-most powerful senator, as well as the twelfth-most powerful Democratic senator. One week after the West Virginia Democratic Primary, in which Hillary Clinton defeated Obama by 41 to 32 per cent, [54] Byrd said, "Barack Obama is a noble-hearted patriot and humble Christian, and he has my full faith and support.

On February 26, , Byrd was one of two Democrats to vote against the District of Columbia House Voting Rights Act of , which if it had become law would have added a voting seat in the United States House of Representatives for the District of Columbia and add a seat for Utah , explaining that he supported the intent of the legislation, but regarded it as an attempt to solve with legislation an issue which required resolution with a Constitutional amendment.

Democrat Max Baucus of Montana also cast a "nay" vote. Although his health was poor, Byrd was present for every crucial vote during the December Senatorial healthcare debate; his vote was necessary so Democrats could obtain cloture to break a Republican filibuster. At the final vote on December 24, , Byrd referenced recently deceased Senator Ted Kennedy , a devoted proponent, when casting his vote: President, this is for my friend Ted Kennedy!

Byrd initially compiled a mixed record on the subjects of race relations and desegregation. Byrd also said that his views changed dramatically after his teenage grandson was killed in a traffic accident, which put him in a deep emotional valley. Day holiday, Byrd grasped the symbolism of the day and its significance to his legacy, telling members of his staff "I'm the only one in the Senate who must vote for this bill".

Edgar Hoover to look into the possibility that Marshall had either connections to communists or a communist past. He called Thomas's comments a "diversionary tactic" and said "I thought we were past that stage. On March 29, , Byrd criticized a Memphis, Tennessee protest: King's] words and actions, and his presence. There is no reason for us to believe that the same destructive rioting and violence cannot, or that it will not, happen here if King attempts his so-called Poor People's March , for what he plans in Washington appears to be something on a far greater scale than what he had indicated he planned to do in Memphis.

In a March 4, interview with Tony Snow , Byrd said of race relations:. They're much, much better than they've ever been in my life-time I think we talk about race too much. I think those problems are largely behind us I just think we talk so much about it that we help to create somewhat of an illusion.

I think we try to have good will. My old mom told me, 'Robert, you can't go to heaven if you hate anybody. There are white niggers. I've seen a lot of white niggers in my time, if you want to use that word. We just need to work together to make our country a better country, and I'd just as soon quit talking about it so much.

Byrd's use of the term "white nigger" created immediate controversy. When asked about it, Byrd responded,. I apologize for the characterization I used on this program The phrase dates back to my boyhood and has no place in today's society In my attempt to articulate strongly held feelings, I may have offended people.

Sixteen other senators received that rating. National Memorial in Washington, D. Byrd initially said that the impeachment proceedings against Clinton should be taken seriously. Although he harshly criticized any attempt to make light of the allegations, he made the motion to dismiss the charges and effectively end the matter.

Even though he voted against both articles of impeachment, he was the sole Democrat to vote to censure Clinton. Byrd strongly opposed Clinton's efforts to allow gays to serve in the military and supported efforts to limit gay marriage.

In , before the passage of the Defense of Marriage Act , he said, "The drive for same-sex marriage is, in effect, an effort to make a sneak attack on society by encoding this aberrant behavior in legal form before society itself has decided it should be legal. Despite his previous position, he later stated his opposition to the Federal Marriage Amendment and argued that it was unnecessary because the states already had the power to ban gay marriages.

Wade and allow Congress and individual states to adopt laws banning abortions. Its passing was the first time a congressional committee supported an anti-abortion amendment. In , Byrd voted against a ban on intact dilation and extraction , a late-term abortion procedure typically referred to by its opponents as "partial-birth abortion". In April , the Senate Judiciary Committee approved a plan to replace the Electoral College with direct elections of presidents.

Byrd initially opposed direct elections on the key vote and was one of two senators to switch votes in favor of the proposal during later votes.

In April , as the Senate Judiciary Committee delayed a vote on Supreme Court nominee Harry Blackmun , Byrd stated that "no nomination should be voted on within 24 hours after the hearing" after the previous two Supreme Court nominees had delays and was one of the 17 committee members who went on record of assuring Blackmun's nomination would be reported favorably to the full Senate.

In October , Byrd sponsored an amendment protecting members of Congress and those elected that have not yer assumed office. Byrd mentioned the 88 political assassinations in the United States and said state law was not adequate to handle the increase in political violence.

In February , after Fred R. Harris and Charles Mathias requested the Senate Rules Committee change the rules to permit selection of committee chairmen on a basis aside from seniority, Byrd indicated through his line of questioning that he saw considerable value in the seniority system. Edgar Hoover to resign, Byrd opined that Boggs' imagination was involved and called on him to reveal any possible "good, substantial, bona fide evidence".

Griffin for a briefing that after which Byrd, Scott, and Griffin asserted they had been told by Nixon of his intent to withdraw American forces from Indochina by a specific date. Ziegler disputed their claims by stating that the three had not been told anything by Nixon he had not mentioned in his speech the same day as the meeting.

Harris, and Charles H. Percy circulated letters to their fellow Senators in an attempt to gain cosponsors for a resolution appoint the Senate's first girl pages. Byrd maintained that the Senate was ill equipped for girl pages and was among those that cited the long hours of work, the carrying or sometimes heavy documents and the high crime rate in the Capitol area as among the reasons against it.

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