Connectivity is used in more than 300 colleges and universities around the world

Basic IP Connectivity and Troubleshooting in Cisco Express Forwarding
Guides Book Index Outline. Retrieved 22 September In , the US-based nonprofit Zidisha tapped into this trend to offer the first person-to-person microfinance platform to link lenders and borrowers across international borders without intermediaries. Implications for the future of broadband networks". Retrieved 20 May The next step is to verify the next-hop CEF entry for By querying the type of the active network, as shown below, you can alter your refresh rate based on the bandwidth available.

Troubleshooting IP Connectivity

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Where exactly in-between depends on how much you trust Microsoft but it's certainly worth assessing whether what you're doing at the edge is already done, or can be done in the backend, and thus is unnecessary inline where it can cause performance issues. Microsoft Trust Center holds all the relevant information on how we secure your data in the cloud. Therefore, Microsoft strongly recommend that SSL interception is not performed on Office traffic going to Microsoft owned endpoints.

Any other endpoints, if interception is done, it should be carefully managed so as not to cause a bottleneck. If SSL interception absolutely must be done, the devices doing this should be scaled up considerably to reduce the bottleneck this will inevitably cause, this can often be very costly given the volumes of data SaaS services entail.

Our support statement on traffic inspection devices is here. This brings me to my next point, what is Microsoft's recommended egress model? How do we recommend you get Office traffic out of the corporate network and to Microsoft? There are essentially three main methods: There are distinct pros and cons to each method: This is a common method used to connect to the internet as it simplifies the connectivity process and allows a centralized device to control access and intercept traffic.

Some of these pros mean a proxy is the only way a customer can access the internet without major network redesign work. All Office services will work though a proxy, even Skype for Business, however there are a large number of drawbacks to this method.

As you can see, there are some considerable downsides to standard proxies when it comes to SaaS services.

Imagine the load the proxy would be under handling thousands of real-time TCP media sessions during an all hands call for example, scaling up to handle this is likely to be very expensive and still run the risk of causing performance issues due to the protocol used.

The other thing to bear in mind is that proxies were likely designed for access to transient endpoints, in that a TCP connection will be made to a website, the data will be obtained and then the session closed and the resources memory, processing, ports will be returned to the pool.

SaaS services tend to work very differently however. Outlook as an example will open multiple TCP connections per users, and sit there all day with them in use, as such the resources aren't returned to the pool as they would be with transient access and again, the devices need upgrading to deal with this extra load.

We recommend around clients per public IP address for network address translation. Due to the high risk of these devices causing performance issues due to their design and role being for a different purpose, Microsoft recommends you don't use these types of proxy solutions unless absolutely necessary.

If there is no other option, or it is a very strong requirement to use proxies, the following advice should be followed. Whilst not a recommendation for any vendor over another, Microsoft are working with various vendors such as Zscaler and Bluecoat to help better align cloud proxy products to best practices for Office Zscaler for example have a button which automatically optimizes Office traffic e.

Bluecoat have updated their firmware to bypass Skype traffic from SSL decrypting. If a proxy is a requirement for your business, it's worth checking that your current implementation is going to work well with SaaS services like Office If not, then it's worth talking to the vendors you choose to remediate this, around their alignment to the Office and cloud in general connectivity principals discussed in this post, and ensure they are followed upon implementation.

Direct routing would be similar to that which you have at home, a single TCP session is used to connect to the endpoint with in most cases the source IP simply being translated from an internal e. The egress device may also ensure that the destination IP and or port is also allowed. This means the endpoint connected to receives the request from the translated public source IP, but the client connects to the public IP address of that endpoint.

This method is generally the recommended way to connect Office services if possible. These need to be constantly monitored and firewalls updated with changes which can be challenge in large organizations and missing updates to IP ranges can cause connectivity issues.

Due to the efficient, low impact manner of egress, allowing connections to flow direct, using the protocol of choice, this method is the recommended method to connect your Office services wherever it is possible. ExpressRoute is private peering with the Microsoft global network described above. Essentially, it's simply a private network connection from the edge of the customer network to the edge of Microsoft's network the same network you'd reach over the internet avoiding the leg which the internet takes in connecting to Microsoft.

This private network can carry some elements of Microsoft bound traffic via three types of peering: Azure Private — Connecting to virtual networks in Azure e. SD-WAN solutions offer the management capabilities to direct the relevant traffic according to its required class of service, offloading MPLS links and delaying the need to upgrade capacity. It focuses, for the most part on optimizing the legacy, physical WAN. With the rapid migration to Cloud applications e.

It is no longer sufficient to think in terms of physical locations being the heart of the business, and a new cloud-based SD-WAN solution was born. In addition, Cloud infrastructure servers and storage , introduces a new production environment that has its own connectivity and security requirements.

Securely accessing corporate resources requires, mobile users to connect to a branch or HQ firewall VPN which could be very far from their location. This causes user experience issues, and encourages compliance violations for example, direct access to Cloud services that bypasses corporate security policy. Ultimately, the mobile workforce is not effectively covered by the WAN.

It is based on the following principles:. The notorious dissolving perimeter is re-established in the Cloud. The Cloud delivers a managed WAN backbone with reduced latency and optimal routing.

This ensures the required quality of service for both internal and Cloud-based applications. All network elements plug into the Cloud WAN with secure tunnels including physical locations, Cloud resources and mobile users. This ensures all business elements are integral part of the network instead of being bolted on top of a legacy architecture.

Beyond securing the backbone itself, it is possible to directly secure all traffic WAN and internet that crosses the perimeter - without deploying distributed firewalls. As shown in the example above, the SD-WAN provider acts as a gateway to the internet for the business. Any attempts to gain access to the business network or attacks must pass through the SD-WAN provider's secure network. This not only provides increased levels of security but also off-loads attacks directly to the SD-WAN provider, saving the business considerable bandwidth and resources needed to repel attacks.

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